Education and British rule In India: Education is very closely related to traditional form which focuses on religion. Mostly there were the Heterodox schools of belief i.e the Jain and Buddhist schools. Heterodox Buddhist education was more comprehensive and aside of the monastic orders, medicine, philosophy, logic, the Buddhist education centers were urban institutes of learning such as Taxila and Nalanda where grammar, metaphysics, arts, and crafts etc. were also taught and practiced. Early secular Buddhist organizations or institutions of higher learning studies like Taxila and Nalanda proceeded to function well into the common era and were visited by students from China and Central Asia.
There was a huge network of education centers like Tols, Madarasas, Pathshalas, and Maktabs in India where the young children learnt from the religious texts, and other ancient literatures for various kinds of knowledge in literature, science, law, art, etc, and there was no knowledge of the scientific progress happening throughout the world. Right from the start of their relationship with India, the British, who came to India as merchants and soon became rulers and administrators, had affected the political, economic, and educational systems of the country. Their impression of the cultural and social life of India was, however, gradual.
The Education and the Act: Education and British rule
Charles Grant and William Wilberforce were the missionary activists, enforced the East India Company to provide its non-invention plan and make way for spreading education via English in order to teach western literature and follow Christianity. Hence, the British Parliament joined a clause in 1813 charter that Governor-General-in-Council below one lakh for education and allowed the Christian Missionaries to broadcast their religious ideas in India. This Act had its own value because it was the first case that British East India Company recognized for the promotion of education in India. With the efforts and struggles of R.R.M Roy, the Calcutta College was founded for giving Western education. Also, the three Sanskrit colleges were also set up at Calcutta.
General Committee of Public Instruction, 1823: This committee was settled to look after the growth and development of education in India which was directed by Orientalists who were the great fan of Oriental learning rather than the Anglican. Hence, they built paramount of pressure on the British India Company to increase and promote Western Education in India. As a result, India got discursive between Orientalist-Anglicist and Macaulay’s commitment which come across with a clear picture of British education policy.
Lord Macaulay’s Education Policy, 1835: Education and British rule
- This policy was formed mainly to create that method of education which educates only upper levels of society through English.
- Legally, English become court language and the Persian language was removed as the court language.
- In 1849, JED Bethune founded Bethune School.
- Printings and publishing of English books were made free and accessible at a very low price.
- English education was offered fund as compared to oriental learning.
- Agriculture Institute was founded at Pusa (Bihar)
- Engineering Institute was built at Roorkee.
Wood’s Dispatch, 1854: Education and British rule
- It is observed as the “Magna Carta of English Education in India” and carried a comprehensive plan for advertising education in India.
- It suggested the hierarchy education level- At bottom, vernacular primary school; at district, Anglo-vernacular High Schools and certified college, and affiliated universities of Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras Presidency.
- It states the liability of State for the expansion of education to the masses.
- Recommended English as a medium and communication of instruction for higher education and vernacular at school level
Hunter Commission (1882-83)
- It was formed to assess the successes of Wood Dispatch of 1854 under W.W Hunter in 1882.
- It marked the state’s role in the addition and improvement of primary education and secondary education.
- It underlined the transfer of control to the district and municipal boards.
- It advised two division of secondary education- Literary up to university level; Vocational for a commercial career.
- It was instructed to study on the difficulties Calcutta University and their recommendations were relevant to other universities also.
- Their measurements were as follows:
I. 12-year school education
II. 3-years degree after the middle stage
III. Centralised functioning of colleges, unitary residential-teaching autonomous body.
IV. Suggested expansive facilities for applied scientific and technological study, teacher’s training, and female education was given preference.
Hence, we can say that Education and British rule and method were influenced by the aspiration and thoughts of Christian Missionaries. It was offered to ensure a cheap supply of educated Indians to increase the number of junior posts in the administration and in British business interest. That’s why they stress on English as a medium of instruction and also to glorified British victors and their administration.
Charles Grant who is also referred to as ‘father of modern and improved education in India’ made recommendations for foundation of English education in India and English to be the official language of the company for the local events, but his plans and systems were not allowed by British Parliament, as he was a part of the Evangelical Sect and wanted Christian missionaries to reform the religion of the locals and teach and ask them to preach English, but British had already suffered enough revolts in the past in other communities for repairing with the religion and language of local people. Also, that time the Governor General of Bengal, Warren Hastings, was a follower in Oriental learning; he didn’t let the recommendations of Charles Grant pass through.